History of wool pdf

As primitive as they must have History of the Australian wool industry Barry White CEO, International Fibre Centre . ” However, flakes of gold have been found in Paleolithic caves dating back as far as 40,000 B. C. S. Support Program History. The early wool industry was different from History of Sheep. The Chinese, as well as the Greeks and Romans, assuredly understood the preparation of felt, and the Chinese still prepare it, but the manufacture of this article had a limited importance among them. 8% of total world production of wool. M. 0%), India (8. 2012. May 14, 1778. History of Wool Making Wool is a type of fiber that is obtained from sheep and some other animals. Commercially, wool bleaching is carried out using either an oxidative or a reductive system, or a combined oxidation/reduction process. It is not the Needle Felting 101: History, Wool, Tools. was and still is the largest state-run collective in world history, the US. As water flowed from the pipe, he shone a light into the tank into the stream of water. Patagonia: A Sustainable Outlook on Business INTRODUCTION How can businesses make a difference in a world of decreasing resources? Patagonia is diligently working toward finding an answer to that question. the development of lesotho's wool and mohair marketing system: options for continued institutional change and policy reform by john p. development of this legendary fiber/filament yarn. and Constitution Ave. The American colonies bought their cloth, furniture, knives, guns, and kitchen utensils from England. In addition, the outer skin of the wool fiber acts as a protective film, giving wool cloth improved resistance to abrasion. With Wool and Needles. Dye History from 2600 BC to the 20th Century. Introduction. The wool was woven. 2010. In this article I have briefly described about method of identification of natural fiber like as cotton, jute, flax, wool, silk fiber. 2. For many thousand years, the usage of fiber was limited by natural fibres such as flax, cotton, silk, wool and plant fibres for different applications. It is likely many Karakul ewes are milked after removal of the lambs at or near birth. In January 1942 the War Production Board designated the Red Cross as the single clearing agency for all knitting, and the War Production Board granted them priority status for receiving wool. wool yarns in the same fabric is also not an intimate blend. Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute. crimps per inch while coarse wool has only one or two. Up until then, the only sheep in the colony were the fat-tailed sheep which the First Fleet brought with it from the Cape of Good Hope. [Foreword by Sylvan I. dominated Australian exports (see . 6 percent of all livestock marketed, or $3. Inscriptions mention the guild of dyers as prominent in the life of Hierapolis. By William Ferguson Leggett. They grow a wool coat and once a year this wool coat is sheared off the animal. However, for many decades history and tradition, dating back to the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. RYDER. In an analysis of [2, Africans’ hair [12], a White anthropologist, reported that the hair types ranged from peppercorn tufted,,matted, to woolly. A long roving was prepared by rolling fibre along the thigh. <br />In Colonial times<br />Massachusetts passed a law requiring young people to spin<br />Spinning duties fell to the eldest unmarried daughter <br />Wool trading in the colonies was a punishable offense (punishment was cutting off the right hand)<br />Despite the King’s attempts to disrupt wool commerce, the wool industry The history — Take-off and consolidation of an industry. South Africa is a vast and beautiful country with a rich history of sheep and wool farming. In History. Achieving our three basic needs—food, clothing and shelter—sheep have been considered one of society’s most valuable, renewable resources for 10,000 years. In the decade of the 1980s the world population of Karakul was estimated at approximately 31. capitalism and corporate criminality is misrepresented as the ‘free market’. Marketing options for wool The world wool market is dominated by Australia, while China is the world's largest producer and consumer of wool. The shift toward mineral and fuel exports began in the 1970s and was driven by Iron ore and Coal. Pp. Throughout Bibilical times, the Greeks and the Romans, the Dark Ages and the Renaissance, all the way to the era of discovery, exploration and settlement, sheep have performed their marvellous double duty of feeding and clothing mankind. This petition by workers in Leeds (a major center of wool manufacture in Yorkshire) appeared in a local newspapers in 1786. THE HISTORY OF WOOL Fact Sheet. g. 3%), China/Macau (25. textile imports and exports. 116/kg to $0. Cotton and Wool Yearbook Tables, an annual data product that contains U. The history of hand-knitting. [For general silk information, please visit the All About Silk section, which covers various related subjects, such as Advantages of Silk , Cleaning Silk , How Silk is Made , Silk Info Dictionary , and Interesting Facts about Much knowledge was gained about anthrax in the 1800s. 4 Dyes for cellulosic polymers Cellulosic substrates include cotton, rayon, cellophane, linen, and paper, all of which are very hydrophilic and, therefore, require hydrophilic (water soluble) dyes for their coloration from a dyebath. Wood has been one of our most important building materials from early Paleolithic times, both for building and for the manufacture of tools, weapons, and furniture. „The hairs of camel, llama and alpaca are also processed to yield wool. ” Returning to Fort Vancouver by steamer in March 1856, he stopped at Fort Humboldt in northern California and crafted a three-pronged Rogue River campaign for his regular army units that culminated in the Battle of Big Meadows. The spinning frame will put the actual twist on the roving and turn it into yarn. Rock and slag wool insulation offers a wide array of benefits for specifiers, designers and builders interested . Types. Type Wool breed. The National Museum, Archaeological-Historical Series XXI (The  Canada's sheep and wool industry dates back practically to thebeginning On the whole Canada is well adapted to sheep and wool production, and through  flax, cotton, silk, wool and plant fibres for different applications. A Long History Evidence has been found that wool cloth existed as far back as 10,000 B. Goswami   been a leading centre for sheep farming, wool production and cloth making for . Sheep in the New World In the 1400's, Queen Isabella of Spain used money derived from the wool industry to finance Columbus and other conquistadors' voyages. Only one non-wool component is allowed in intimately blended singles yarns. Also an account of the pastoral life of the ancients, their social state and attainments in the domestic arts, with appendices on Pliny's Natural history; on the origin and manufacture of linen and cotton paper; on felting, netting, &c deduced from copious and authentic sources. The Price History of English Agriculture, 1209-1914 Gregory Clark University of California, Davis gclark@ucdavis. ” (A. At Sheep-to-Shawl, we demonstrate two methods: drop spindle and spinning wheel. Breeds of sheep are generally classified according to the breed assets. This activity is in . Even the survivors of the most notorious and universally recognised camps in history discovered this problem in the aftermath of the Second World War. Bird down and plant fibres were also included. Purebred sheep were introduced in the 1840s and 1850s by Germans and Scots. 2 Then as now, Americans required fabrics for clothes, towels, sheets, blankets, sails, and dozens of other items made of wool, cotton, silk, linen, and hemp and bought them from textile manufacturers. 1800–1500 BCE. History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substance, Including Observations on Spinning, Dyeing and Weaving, Also an Account of the Pastoral Like of the Ancients, ---. The traditional blankets differ from most modern blankets in that they are almost entirely made of wool (88% wool and 12% cotton), hence their rougher and firmer texture. THE HISTORY OF WOOL Fact Sheet. The tables also include domestic and world price series and indexes; State cotton acreage, yield, and production data; and conversions of U. Table 1). Appliqué is found in many forms of folk art, from Gujarati Indian tent fabrics to American colonial quilts. The fine-wool breeds can withstand heat, cold, and drought, and produce satisfactorily under harsh conditions. 1. From the waters were obtained precious mineral dyes (black, purple, scarlet), which gave the fine thick wool of the sheep a ready market like the fame of Thyatira. The history of knitting is not well known because fabrics used for knitting are made of wool, silk, and other fibers that decay rapidly. Textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times. 2018 Wool. pdf  Textile History, 26 (I), 3-22, 1995. wool was woven into a piece of cloth from which a black suit was tailored. electricscotland. As humans moved from place to place, sheep were easy to herd and take with them. Photo: Willem Olivier. In seeking means of protection and warmth,   Sep 12, 2018 In this article you will know the history of wool, characteristics of wool fibers, . pdf]. British manufacturers in the meantime needed markets for the goods they produced. A contrast in spinning technology. „Sheep hair is sheared off from the body, scoured, sorted, dried, dyed, spun and woven to yield wool. WOOL FIBRE Textile Raw Materials Engr. The history of knitting is a fascinating study of social history as it is more involved with the everyday people who created and developed this wonderful craft than the majority of more conventional historic studies. 0 billion worth (table 1). Livestock sales accounted for 28. The Agricultural Adjustment Act  Colonial Williamsburg journal, a popular history magazine about historic towels, sheets, blankets, sails, and dozens of other items made of wool, cotton, silk,  History of textile production. The Native American Coast Salish people of the Pacific Northwest once cultivated an extra-wooly distinct breed of dog called Salish wool dogs or Comox dogs. mcmaster. This is the only such work by a modern Austrian; indeed, only a few monographs in specialized areas of The history of Navajo rugs goes back to around 1700, when the Navajo were believed to have learned the craft of rug-making from the Pueblo Indians. In the beginning years, RWS wool will not have enough volume to trade like a commodity:. Much of this wool was exported through Southampton. The First Fleet brought the initial population of 70 sheep from the Cape of Good Hope to Australia. This growth was interrupted by two major depressions during the 1840s and 1890s and stimulated in complex ways by the rich gold discoveries in Victoria in 1851, but the underlying dynamics were essentially unchanged. The wool and hair of the old world camels is of lesser quality and value than that of the new-world camels. vi, 304. 3%) and Wool fiber is the natural hair grown on sheep and is composed of protein substance called as keratin. Flannel is a great choice as are corduroy (preferably wide wale), Calvary twill, moleskin, and even waxed cotton. As humans learned to spin and weave, woolens became paramount in growing the wealth of Babylon. Before it was dyed the wool was beaten in a mixture of water and clay to clean and thicken it. Spinning: Twisting the wool fibers so that they form a single strand of yarn. The Romans built The Highway, but it was the Saxons who first settled here. Natural fibers have been used for apparel and home fashion for thousands of years, with the use of wool going back over 4,000 years. 6 Next, the wool yarn is woven into fabric. File size 640 KB PDF In the wool textile sector of Britain and West Europe, taken as a whole, it is hard to sustain the notion of a long term let alone terminal crisis of wool in the face of competition from cotton, as implied in some of the literature. This was called fulling. Until the Revolution, British goods poured into the American market, and most of Williamsburg's citizens, from the governor to house servants Wool history<br />First commodity to be traded worldwide<br />Columbus brought sheep to Cuba and the Dominican Republic on his second voyage to America in 1493. Knitting is the process of using two or more needles to loop yarn into a series of interconnected loops in order to create a finished garment or some other type of fabric. Key Words: Viscose Brief History of Development. FIBER ABSORBENCY Wool is a hygroscopic fiber; it takes up moisture in vapor form. Domesticated sheep were used by colonists primarily for wool for home-produced textiles and, to a lesser extent, meat. Such higher quality wool enabled the entrepreneur merchants in the mainland to produce high quality raw material on their own and thus be independent from foreign raw materials. Sheep were raised for wool which could be spun into yarn and then knitted or woven into cloth. Reduction of fibre mobility by adhesion of fibres and yarns at their points of contact and by decreasing fibre elasticity by means of intermolecular crosslinking. edu October 9, 2003 The paper constructs an annual price series for English net agricultural output in the years 1200-1914 using 26 component series: wheat, barley, oats, rye, peas, History of Knitting: The Paradox in a Pair of Socks Apryl Zarfos Anderson < www. By M L RYDER. ” Timeline created by facebooker_100000053486271. L. Fleece Grading and Wool Sorting: The Historical. II chapters 1 and 2. Anyone interested in pursuing the subject further should start with the references below. First sheep use for wool. The yarn of wool can also be knitted into fabric or clothing like jumpers. Wool can be spun or made into yarn. 5-year Price History for Fine Wool. Some of the first dozen Spanish Merionos were brought to Sydney from Africa. The finer the wool, the softer it is; fine wool such as merino is used in the clothing industry and a coarse wool such as Karakul is used to make carpets. Fact Sheet: World Cotton History. In some respects, microemulsions can be considered as small-scale – Leather, tapestries, crewelwork, wool, linen, silk, and velvet. com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WOOL-482-582-12-T-01. Although there is a substantial literature on the  Feb 21, 2013 Italian Wool-Based Cloth Industries, 1100–1730. for meat, lard, or soap for the farm. The Wool Textile Industry The manufacture of woollen cloth was the staple of the English economy from 1200 to 1800. Weaving. 6. As a result, animal and human cases of anthrax in the United States, Britain, and Germany were well documented in the early 1900s. W. Wool fabrics clean easily. History of Textile Fabrics. Southwestern PA Diversified Agriculture and Sheep Raising (PDF) From c. ] Brooklyn: Chemical Publishing Company, 1947. Steps in Processing Wool into Yarn. Australian Wool Production, Trade Clearances and Stocks Production WI Stocks Book digitized by Google from the library of the University of Michigan and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user tpb. $5. Wool clothing wicks moisture away from your skin, making you drier and more comfortable. These socks were done with Nålebinding which is a technique that uses single needle and thread. By 1838, wool was Australia’s main export. The first concrete evidence we have of soap-like substance is dated around 2800 BC. In the 1920s, more than 25 million horses were used primarily for draft purposes. The value of Australian wool exports in 2015–16 is estimated to be around $2. – Heavy, spiral, and melon ball turnings – Knobbed bun feet on chests and tables. AWI invests in research, development, innovation and marketing along the global supply chain for Australian wool. aprylza. In addition, dyes must be designed that maintain affinity when Archaeological evidence does not currently support such a long domestication history, but the bottleneck date is similar to dates proposed for initial domestication of food crops. ” Wool explained This photograph features wool buyers at Shaniko in eastern Wasco County. Sheep helped provide people with food, clothing, and shelter. Stroock. Texas is the leading crude oil- and natural gas-producing state in the U. com 515 Truxtun Avenue, 93301 (661) 852-7282, VisitBakersfield. Basotho acquired wooled Merino sheep through labour migration and employment on South African sheep farms and, sometimes, through stock theft. This example of a short conical hat (1) dates to ca. Cloete and others published South African sheep and wool industry We use cookies to make interactions with our website easy and meaningful, to better understand the Changes in the Sheep Industry in the United States: Making the Transition from Tradition (2008) The National Wool Act increased tariffs on all wool and woolen prod- ucts from $0. Soap History. “If Gen. It is made of very dense felt in its original off-white hue, and is British textile industry at a key point in its history: the first quarter of the nineteenth century. In 1950 the Montana Wool Growers first sponsored the Montana State Ram Sale in Miles City. sheep industry is one of the most complex industries in animal agriculture. Return to text . Wool with a tolerance of +/- 3 per cent. The rich sensory experience of handling wool immediately drew children to examine it more closely: They all expressed delight in how soft, fuzzy and comforting it felt. HISTORY A BRIEF SUMMARY. Infact synthetics have high luster which is purposefully removed during spinning. October 15, 1998 / K. United States Democratic Review, 1846, 1 page. He goes on to add that the hair’s “spirality appears to have produced the matted condition. raw materials that her colonies could supply. crunch it, pull it, wash it – without any wear and wrinkles. For those old enough to remember the 50's and 60's, this was when there was a great deal The history of silk is both enchanting and illustrious. Only one non-wool component is allowed in each singles yarn to help ensure the wool in the product has not previously been used in a fabric and is ‘new’. Weight of the fleece, particularly clean fleece weight, is usually the most valuable trait. And by the 19th century, the amount of iron being consumed by expanding railroads provided metallurgists with the financial incentive to find a solution to iron's brittleness and inefficient production processes. 19/kg clean wool and established an incentive payment program for growers to be paid out of wool tariff revenues (USDA, 1999). It can be used with both formal and informal dress. Arkwork’s Spinning Frame, invented in about 1767 enabling cheap production of cotton cloth And the modern day version – Australian Cotton being spun in Dongying Hongyuan Textile mill (China) photo by John Hamparsum. 8 percent of farmers’ cash receipts in the United States in 1975, more than any other com- modity or commodity group. in black, four inches long in the center) to be seven feet long and five feet 6 inches wide to weigh five pounds each. fact that Bronze Age wool clothing in Scandinavia has a homogenous, (161K, pdf) . What is Polyester - History of Polyester. Over time, the village of Wapping grew; wharves and houses spread along the riverfront. But it is even older than we maybe think. The sheep economy declined rapidly thereafter, as did agriculture more generally. Wool was the first commodity of sufficient value to warrant international trade. The Coast Salish spindle consisted of a carved whorl on a long shaft. Through research, Juliet has come to believe that the outside world is not as bad as leaders of the silo have painted it to be. The History of Applique Work. First sheep in Australia. Blackwork: Royal School of Needlework Essential Stitch Guides. It consisted of a wax or other resist on the background, actually a batik technique done on large scale. 3 Difference between cellulose and synthetic fibres Among natural fibres available cotton, wool and silk are the most Wool fabrics were available in a wide range of qualities, from rough undyed cloth to fine, dense broadcloth with a velvety nap; high-value broadcloth was a backbone of the English economy and was exported throughout Europe. All of them made soap by mixing fat, oils and salts. The world's leading serious history magazine. Primitive man living in the Mesopotamian Plain used sheep for three basic human needs: food, clothing and shelter. 12. Spanish sheep from Holland and a woolled sheep from Persia were imported but when breeding with the local sheep began the imported breeds soon disappeared. for them it was considered the fur of animals and was referred to as wool or woolly 8,12]. The Bactrian gives more wool than the dromedary and its wool is also of a higher quality. Knitting is made of wool, silk, and other fibers. The wages for this  Wool comes from sheep. Red Cross knitting continued unabated throughout the war, a homespun production line that stretched from house to house, and from Seattle to the soldiers fighting overseas. and . Today the U. What fun it would be to discover Rumpelstiltskin-like stories about maidens in dire straits, knitting late into the night! I had good reason to expect this. Spinning The roving as it comes off the card has no twist. the 38-story Meridian Bank Building in. Innovators developed synthetic fabrics to overcome some of the inherent limitations of natural fibers. That’s what polyester became famous for. ster8/ghezelayagh_ava. – Tables were rectangular in shape. This long history has established woolgrowers who have a keen appreciation of how to care for their animals and the environment. If the food industry produced fries and coke, the textile industry supplemented it with Polyester – quick, cheap and easy. It is not the Medium (Semi-soft wool): Wool is white in color and average fat. History of Sheep Farming in South Africa. I. The word “appliqué” is derived from the French verb “appliquer,” meaning “to put on. Felting is a simple technique requiring very little equipment. Info-pack ref. Rayon is the . Silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants, because of its texture and luster. Anyone sent outside fears death because of toxins in the air. . It is produced from different types of sheep all over the world. The sheep gave wool that contemporary sources called fine (thin) or of long fibre. Tiny pores in the epicuticle make the fiber semi-permeable, Wool Fibers. Wool production in Lesotho began in the 1850s, barely 20 years after the foundijig of the nation by Moshoeshoe I. This web page shows only a small excerpt of our McMaster research. varying according to the degree of elasticity inherent in the fibre. When I began researching the history of knitting, I expected legends and myths and maybe a few charming fairy tales. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-28. The traditional view was expressed by Ashton, “There was probably no county of By value, the most important export destinations of South African greasy wool from 2000-2005 were the Czech Republic (29. represents its ‘military-industrial complex’ as a system of ‘free enterprise’. Lumber, wool, iron, cotton, tobacco, rice, and indigo were among the products needed in England. The History of Fabric and Textiles. Development of the Wool Industry In the Middle Ages (476-1453 AD) wool trading flourished in Europe, with cities located in the Benelux Countries, England, France and Italy at the core. These were used primarily for meat, rather than wool. Another introduction, this time from Gaul, was the Roman answer to the hoody — the shaggy. Wool from goats is called cashmere and mohair, from muskoxen is qiviut and from rabbit - angora. quality fine wool • Three main types –Northern type - Short tailed, with black, grey or piebald colouration, similar to current Shetland breed –Western type - tan-faced, probably related to current Welsh Mountain breed –Caithness & Sutherland - the Kerry, slow growing breed, with black face and small, short, narrow frame Duty on cheap wool 1828 — 15 percent on wool under 10 c. Keith Sugden and British textile industry at a key point in its history: the first quarter of the nineteenth century. History of knitting. 00. pdf. Carding: Brushing the fibers to remove the tangles and align the wool in a uniform direction. Another group of Chinese geneticists (Hui Xiang and colleagues 2013) has identified an expansion of silkworm population about 1,000 years ago, during the Chinese Song History Of Silk. As the subtitle declares, this work is an overall history ofeconomic thought from a frankly 'Austrian'standpoint: that is, from the point of view of an adherent of the 'Austrian School'ofeconomics. There are numerous stages in the production of textiles, and surviving implements provide clues to the techniques used. The Incas used quipus (or khipus) made of protein fibres like wool or  Rock and slag insulations, sometimes referred to as mineral wool, have been benefits. Many of Australia’s early settlers wool, and silk. S. This is collected on wooden bobbins. Other oxidizing agents began to be used, too: hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide and sodium perborate. FIBER HISTORY. Over the next 2,000 years, cotton, wool and silk In the history of the West European economy from the twelfth to the eighteenth centuries, wool-based textiles constituted the single most important manufactured commodity to enter both regional and interna - tional trade. It is traditionally blue in color and sometimes has a diced band (usually red-and-white check) around the lower edge and with a colored BalmoralBonnet toorie(pom-pom) set in the middle of the crown. Wool is produced in all Australian states and territories, except the Northern Territory. , the first soap makers were Babylonians, Mesopotamians, Egyptians, as well as the ancient Greeks and Romans. 5. - Volume 8 Issue 2 The wool industry dates from 1797, when John Macarthur and Reverend Samuel Marsden imported Spanish merino sheep to attempt to start a wool industry. ca/wp -content/uploads/2015/06/Fibre-Mill-Study-Chris-Hartridge. In the history of the West European economy from the twelfth to the eighteenth centuries, wool-based textiles constituted the single most important manufactured commodity to enter both regional and interna - tional trade. Felted Wool Felted wool was used to make clothing and furnishings, such as hats, capes, carpets, and even saddle blankets for both functional and aesthetic purposes. The Wool Trade in English Medieval History/9. The owner of the wool, Reverend Marsden, wore the suit when first introduced to King George III. 1. Wool is amazing. . the fullers did their work by treading on the wool cloth with their feet (fulling by In Western Europe, fulling by trampling occurred throughout the historical period   8-month Price History for Wool. 5 mm in diameter . The AWEX (Australian Wool Exchange) EMI (Eastern Market Indicator) eventually improved by a massive 126ac Bird down and plant fibres were also included. mokitimi HISTORY OF THE BAKERSFIELD BASQUE CULTURE AND CUISINE 06152017 Visit . 1%), Germany (10. The Woolmark logo is one of the world's most recognisable textile symbols, and for that a product bearing the mark is made from 100 per cent Pure New Wool. Elasticity It is the ability of stretched material to return immediately to its original size. Photo: Willem Olivier Origin of the breed The Merino’s history in South Africa can be traced back to 1789, when the Dutch Government donated two Spanish Merino rams and four -) groups in silk and wool. Wheat. history and tradition, dating back to the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Modern History Sourcebook: Leeds Woollen Workers Petition, 1786. woolen cloth was being used in the city of  Medieval Sheep and Wool. In 2011, it also produced more cattle, sheep, hay, cotton and wool than any other state. Stone Age about 10,000 years ago. 02 WOOL HISTORY WOOL COMES TO THE AMERICAS Christopher Columbus brought sheep to Cuba and Santo Domingo on his second voyage in 1493; Cortez took their descendants along when he explored what is now Mexico and the southwestern United States. South African sheep breeds : Merino sheep. Qualities of English Wools in the Later Middle Ages,” Textile History 9 (1978): 118–69, esp. 12/Papers/Broadberry. 2% against the US Dollar (USD), clearly signalled the market was headed to dearer territory. Wool explained: “As soon as the war is terminated east of the Cascade Mountains I will be able to send all my disposable forces against the Indians on Rogue river and Puget Sound. , 1832– free wool under 8 c. Chinos could also work if the tweed is a lighter weight. "Wool" is defined as the fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of the Angora or Cashmere goat (and may include the so-called spe- cialty fibers fro m the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama and vicuna) which has never been reclaimed from any woven or felted wool product. However, there were still places where anthrax cases hadn’t been documented, such as Russia, Asia, India and Africa. Sheep provide lamb for them it was considered the fur of animals and was referred to as wool or woolly 8,12]. The History of Knitting Pt 1: Mysterious Origins. For this reason, such textiles proved to be vitally important Flanders in Australia: A Personal History of Wool and War Presented by Jacqueline Dwyer in conversation with Elaine Lewis From the late 19th century to the 1950s, many wool buyers from the Flanders region of France and Belgium emigrated to Australia with their families to establish careers as buyers for the woollen mills of Europe. There are rich mineral deposits in the valley and the mountains. After Columbus sailed and Constantinople fell, Europeans continued to search out trading Human fascination with gold is as old as recorded history. Australian Wool Innovation is a not-for-profit company owned by nearly 22,000 Australian woolgrowers. E. Tiny pores in the epicuticle make the fiber semi-permeable, allowing vapor to pass through to the heart of the fiber. It is very good heat isolator so it was used in very cold and in very hot   As sheep and wool have been a part of human civilisation ever since making, the history of wool is therefore complex. Primitive  Wool is a material for textile that is used since the earliest days of human civilization. Perspective. Alpaca, mohair, angora, camel, cashmere and vicuna are all separate types of wool. pdf  Welcome to the Wool and Sheep fill-in PDF activity. The most important raw wool producers were Spain and England while the best processors were Italy and the Benelux Countries. Later on man learned to spin and weave. The wool fibres are made up of a protein called keratin. Introduction of Wool. Notice that the acrylic yarn has the highest breaking force, about 12 lbs, however when the “Breaking Force/Mass” ratio is calculated then nylon and The history of popcorn is deep throughout the Americas, where corn is a staple food, but the oldest popcorn known to date was found in New Mexico. Lastly, conclusions are . Sun W, Yu H, Shen Y, Banno Y, Xiang Z, and Zhang Z. RICH IN HISTORY. Like human civilization, the story of wool begins in Asia Minor during the Stone Age about 10,000 years ago. WOOL BLEND Established in 1999, Wool Blend is used on products which contain 30 – 49 per cent New Wool, with a tolerance of +/- 3 per cent. Sheep provide lamb Tender wool or wool with breaks in the fiber greatly diminish the value of the fleece. Figure 8 depicts exports volumes of wool from South Africa to various regions of the world between 2000 and 2009. The Indian Wool Industry is the 7th largest in the world and it accounts for about 1. at MINERAL WOOL - ROCK WOOL INSULATION there were some mineral wool products that deliberately combined asbestos, such as layers of asbestos paper, with mineral wool, and other inventors experimented with combining other fibers such as flax with mineral wool to reduce its tendency to settle in vertical installations such as wall cavities. That changed with the invention of the cotton gin, a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds. Ensure that all short pieces are removed; Ensure that all hairy, coarse britches and necks are removed; Ensure that there is no belly wool on the fleece; Remove all matted pieces. Wool and polyester fibres in a singles yarn form an intimate blend. The thickness of wool fiber ranges from 25-55 microns and wool length ranges from 8-10 cm. Return to text 30. Lastly, conclusions are drawn. They produce a more desirable, finer the wool trade in english medieval history Download the wool trade in english medieval history or read online books in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, and Mobi Format. NW, Washington DC, 20560 | +1 (202) 633-2240 | Contact Us The Story of Wool. 145–46 MalanimaItalyPricesWages. Situated on the banks of the River Thames, just outside the City of London, Wapping has a history dating back thousands of years. They are complaining about the effects of machines on the previously well-paid skilled workers. The use of linen began in Egypt, the use of cotton in India, the use of silk in China, and the use of wool in central Asia. Even before shears were invented, wool would have been harvested using  Natural Fibres - wool from sheep & fibre tops from alpaca, angora rabbits, cashmere and angora Books; Wool; Fibre size; Sheep History; Sheep Breeds; Alpaca; Silk; Cotton http://socserv. T. Australia is the world’s largest wool producer, accounting for around 20 per cent of global wool production (greasy basis— the raw material shorn from sheep). According to the UN about 40 percent of Central America’s forests were destroyed between 1950 and 1980 and during the same period Africa lost about 23 percent of its forests. R. ” 12 O. Wool also absorbs moisture and insulates against heat and cold. Fine-Wool Breeds The fine-wool breeds are chiefly Rambouillet and Debouillet. Flax and hemp were also used as a material for fabrics. In Wisconsin, this is frequently done in the early spring  Wool as a raw material has been widely available since the domestication of sheep. To increase flock wool production, select sheep that produce the most wool. Additionally, knitting needles are hard to distinguish beyond a doubt from hair picks, skewers, spindles, or the other many uses of a sharpened stick. ‘Concentration camps’ are difficult to define. THE HISTORY OF WOOL Fact Sheet Like human civilization, the story of wool begins in Asia Minor during the Stone Age about 10,000 years ago. edu October 9, 2003 The paper constructs an annual price series for English net agricultural output in the years 1200-1914 using 26 component series: wheat, barley, oats, rye, peas, But sometimes, old method is the best from modern technology. wool ewes are an excellent choice. This type of wool can be obtained from the Tsigai , Suffolk, Hampshire, and Tunis sheep breeds. on wool under 12 c. Jan Oosthoek / Comments Off on The Role of Wood in World History The destruction of the world’s forests is a major concern in our age. gov There are many references to sheep in the Bible, especially in the Old Testament. The graph also depicts that Asia was the biggest market for South Africa wool followed by Europe during the period under review. "truth in fabrics law," is the It is interesting to study the history of this legislation. com Livestock and Wool CooperaWes. com > 27 November 2013 Knitted garments, both hand-­‐ and machine-­‐made, are such a normal part of our lives that we rarely stop to consider how recent is this trend in the scheme of mankind. Fibers can be divided into natural fibres and man-made or chemical fibres. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want. “Army blankets of domestic manufacture wool, grey, (with letters U. Global Environment 10(1):21-53. As a result, the industry consistently generates a high quality, environmentally sound product for international markets. 8. Fragments of very fine linen and woolen cloth have been found in prehistoric graves in countries as far apart as China and Peru. 488. Jan 25, 2018 insignificant and distinct history of sheep, wool, and textile http://farmed. As wool prices rose during the embargo of 1807, a "Merino craze" occurred that pushed the price of fine wool and purebred animals to record levels. It was then fulled. Pliny the Elder records in his Natural History that the reputation for producing the finest wool . Sheep provide us with the same necessities as they provided ancient civilizations. Deep in a dry cave known as the "Bat Cave," small heads of corn were discovered, as well as several individually popped kernels. Buying and selling wool cloth was important to many areas. Wool prices were high at this time and contemporary reports History of Sheep Farming in South Africa. II. It is a knitted cap of soft wool with a voluminous, flat crown. Prato began to specialize in textiles in the 12th century, when garment manufacturing was regulated by the Wool Merchants’ Guild. Over 8,000 years ago people domesticated sheep. Another 72 words (5 lines of text) covering the years 1300, 1433, 1498, 1582 and are included under the topic Early McMaster History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible. pdf emphasis on its early history and those factors believed to be of significance for the Europe, only the mineral (glass, slag and rock) wool insulation industry is  The Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939,1 popularly known as the. It is held together by the oil and natural hooks that exist on the surface of the wool fibers. Mineral textiles include glass fiber, metal fiber and asbestos. Wool was a common material used for medieval History of the Montana Ram Sale. In the period of the Republic of Texas and afterward, sheep ranching expanded into the hills and plateaus north and west of San Antonio. With the emphasis now on wool, a new market was found among the woolen mills in New England. By the time the Romans invaded Britain in 55 B. The History of Soap - Soap Inventors and Origins. bardocucullus, waterproofed with the oil left in the wool, like modern fishermen’s jumpers. This began the famous Toiles de Jouy production. 47 industry itself . Traces of natural fibres have been located to ancient civilizations all over the gobe. provided in W G Hoskin's history of Devon (originally published in 1954, and . Odor Resistant – the moisture wicking properties minimize the growth and life of odor-causing bacteria. In general, a heavier wool is called for to match the weightiness of tweed fabric. 3–0. Below are a few important mile stones in  Like human civilization, the story of wool begins in Asia Minor during the. Interesting Facts. Sep 28, 2012 The yarn is fine and evenly spun, measuring 0. In the middle ages cloth was produced for local consumption almost every- where, and export trade too was fed from a large number of countries; from England, from the Languedoc and from many of the Italian towns. When the spindle reaches the floor, the spinner winds the yarn around the spindle to secure it and then starts the process again. As more synthetics were developed, however, the manmade cellulose-based fibers like rayon, and the new fossil fuel fibers and films—acrylic, nylon, polyester, Knitting History - Origins of Knitting - Making Fabric. Luster It is seen when light reflected from a surface. There are ideas that knitting began in Middle East, Wool fabrics were available in a wide range of qualities, from rough undyed cloth to fine, dense broadcloth with a velvety nap; high-value broadcloth was a backbone of the English economy and was exported throughout Europe. The Wool and Cotton Textile Industries in England and Wales up to 1850. SHEEP RANCHING. HISTORY OF THE BAKERSFIELD BASQUE CULTURE AND CUISINE 06152017 Visit . Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now known as the Silk Road, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and wools to the East. Click Download or Read Online button to get the wool trade in english medieval history book now. Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair . The history of fibres is as old as human civilization. The keratin in the fibres becomes chemically bound to the protein of the other fibres thereby resulting in a permanent bond between the fibres. The Merino’s history in South Africa can be traced back to 1789, when the Dutch Government donated two Spanish Merino rams and four Spanish Merino ewes to Colonel Jacob Gordon, the military commander at the Cape. ” It refers to a textile craft in which one piece of fabric is sewn over another for a decorative effect. 01 WOOL HISTORY Since the Stone Age, primitive humans have valued sheep as a diverse resource. In the 6th and 7th century BC, the oldest recorded indication of using fiber comes with the invention of flax and wool fabric at the THE HISTORY OF LAODICEA We have learned how important the cultural history is of each of the seven churches of the Book of Revelation. I prefer to felt with medium-coarse wool (Sheltland, Bershaft, New Zealand or wools marked short haired felting batts). Posted October 1, 2004. Topics such as products, labor and land tenure, and buildings and landscapes introduce the reader to various aspects of farming. 'N THE PAPER I wrote twenty years ago on the origins of British breeds of sheep, I. at least the 16th century. Cotton and wool was mostly used but because of the labor-intensive process to separate the seeds from the cotton fiber, wool was used more. By the 1830s, Australia was challenging Spain and Germany as the main supplier of wool to England. Silk and synthetics have luster than cellulosic fibres. The name “Shaniko” derives from the surname of August Schernecknau, a German emigrant. Jul 18, 1797. Learn the History From the Iron Age to Electric Arc Furnaces. In the world of the novel, a “cleaning” is a punishment for anyone who commits a crime against the silo. Wool exports to Asia experienced a peak in 2000 at an export volume of about 3. Agriculture in the Settlement Period to about 1840 (PDF) This section provides an overview of agriculture for all of the farming regions outside southeastern Pennsylvania in this period. As far back. As the water fell, an arc of light followed the water down. Medium wool Medium wool sheep, raised more for meat than fiber, produce the lightest weight, least valuable fleeces. hunter and none l. Other fundamental studies included wool surface chemistry, processing and products, fellmongering (harvesting of wool from sheep), felting, carbonising, surface treatments, flammability, denaturation, chemical modification, dyeing, photochemical degradation, and application of polymers to wool. Synthetic fibers made up 15 percent of the balance of the market, with wool and other fibers making up the remaining 10 percent. Wool manufacturers use two basic weaves: the plain weave and the twill. The yarn is used to weave fabric or material. One of the important lessons that we have learned from the study of the cultural history associate with these churches is “If the church doesn’t change the culture, the culture will change the church. 1 The story of wool unfolds in the context of other textile industries, from the lower -quality cotton -linen blend known as fustian to the highest-quality, most expensive silks often embroi-dered with precious metals. Flax is considered to   Buying and selling wool cloth was important to many areas. 2 History of Textile Industry The history of textile is almost as old as that of human civilization and as time moves on the history of textile has further enriched itself. Chick - ens, geese, guinea fowl, and turkeys provided eggs, meat, and feathers. History of Wood Use The tree and its wood have played a prominent role in human life throughout history. , 1842– 5 percent on wool under 7 c. In 1975-76, cooperatives marketed an estimated 11. The agitation for getting rid of the restriction on the import and export of wool began as early as 1819, and during its course very little reference, if any, was made to the American duties. , Series 1, Volume 25, (Part 2), p. These special pups were kept gated in caves or cloistered on islands to keep the breed pure and were fed a special diet made up almost exclusively of salmon. Ceremonial uses for Lesotho blankets From that decade, economic growth was based increasingly upon the production of fine wool and other rural commodities for markets in Britain and the industrializing economies of northwestern Europe. ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/power/ WoolTrade. With wool and needles, Washington knitters did what they could, knitting their bit for Victory. 9%), Italy (12. We don’t know for sure when the first human picked up a gold nugget and thought, “Hey, this is pretty cool. CD. cotton and wool production, supply, use, trade, and price statistics. The breeding of fine-wool bearing sheep changed drastically in 1789 when merino sheep ( two rams and four ewes ) arrived in South Africa from Holland. Skip to main content Search the history of over 376 billion web pages on the Internet. In fine merino wools, for instance, the individual scales are in the form of cylindrical cusps, one somewhat overlapping the other; . The use of dog hair died out in the mid- 1800’s as traders from the Hudson’s ay ompany made blankets, sheep’s wool and yarn readily available. Baskets of wool, balls of yarn, carding combs and books on sheep and wool attracted the children’s attention. ropean were wool, linen, silk and cotton. aspects of weaving and yarn structure, so as a starting base, we will look at centuries it was common practice to copy and adapt historical fabric samples or to. Directions: Complete the sentence with a word or words from the story on page 5. „In India, mostly sheep are reared for getting wool. Then as now, Americans required fabrics for clothes, towels, sheets, blankets, sails, and dozens of other items made of wool, cotton, silk, linen, and hemp and bought them from textile manufacturers. Hence silk and wool are animal fibres. 1830-1850, agriculture was highly diversified. The ancient Chinese, although they had sheep, never utilized its wool for clothing. Australian wool industry overview – Milestones in the history: Mr Barry White The first auction of Australian wool is held at Garraway's Coffee House in London . Wool is a protein fiber and it is formed in the skin of sheep and hence it is called animal fiber. Home » History of Wool. Stone Age The warmth of wool clothing and the mobility of sheep allowed mankind to. Ordinarily, clean fleece weight is associated with grease fleece weight (actual weight of the fleece when shorn). The recent introduction of synthetic textiles has greatly expanded the array of options available for fabric manufacturers, wool into garments. Wool exhibits by nature a pronounced yellow color and also on exposure to light , alkali or by microbial degradation. In comparison, the man-made fiber industry began with the first commerical production of rayon in 1910. Woolen yarns are made into fabric using a plain weave (rarely a twill), which produces a fabric of a somewhat looser weave and a soft surface (due to napping) with little or no luster. Fibers can be divided into natural fibres and man-made or Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, from hide and fur clothing from bison, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids; additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine, respectively, possess wooly coats. Wool Producing States of India Rajasthan, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Haryana. Those who are related to textile industry, especially for textile engineers and fashion designers have to know about fiber identification. , British woolen clothes were prized for their softness, and a wool industry had already been developed in the nation. World War II war-effort knitting took place almost entirely under the auspices of the American Red Cross. 2014/022. Fine wool Fine wool sheep produce fleeces which usually have the greatest value due to their smaller fiber diameter and versatility of use. 3. ct. See also the Letter from Cloth Merchants 1791, defending machines. He proved this by setting up a tank of water with a pipe that ran out of one side. 1 MICROEMULSIONS: DEFINITION AND HISTORY One of the best definitions of microemulsions is from Danielsson and Lindman [1] “a microemulsion is a system of water, oil and an amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution”. Pure polyester singles yarn folded with a pure wool singles yarn Wool breed. History of Weaving. See the sketch in Bischoff’s “History of the Woollen 2nd Worsted Manufactures,” vol. Wool fabrics were dyed in rich colours, notably reds, greens, golds, and blues. 2 MB Activate Download Links What Is The History Of Wool? The story of wool began 10,000 years ago and the story still continues to today. • Today, in developing countries, animals provide as much as 99% of the power used in agriculture while 20% of the Spinning their way into history: Silkworms, mulberries and manufacturing landscapes in China. long staple wools. Jeans came a long way, from a workers uniform to symbol of youth rebellion to fashion statement. Carding produces what’s called a rolag, or small roll, that is ready for spinning. SAMPLE PAGE. Wool Summary. Note: Review. Selection for wool type, flocking instinct and other economically important traits over the centuries has resulted in more than 200 distinct breeds of sheep occurring worldwide. - Volume 8 Issue 2 Brief History of Weaving Archaeological evidence shows that weaving has been a part of human daily life since the beginning of time. Wool. The name Texas derives from a Caddo Indian word that means “friends” or “allies,” which was incorporated into the state motto: Friendship. Medium wool is usually made into blankets, sweaters, or socks or it is felted. There are very complete records from that date forward. The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old English cnyttan, to knot. Similarly the current system of politically sanctioned rent-seeking, crony. com BAKERSFIELD’S BASQUE RESTAURANTS Artist Tom “Zak” Zackery’s Basque Heritage mural can be found on the Bob’s Auto Glass building in the Wool Growers parking lot. In some varieties of wool, on the other hand, two or more scales occur in the circumference of the fibre, e. Wool market review - week ending 17 August 2018 (Week 7) Before the start of sales, the substantially weaker Australian dollar (AUD) of at times 3. However the main industry in Medieval Salisbury was making wool cloth. Wool also drew criticism for prioritizing the region’s limited military resources in Washington Territory rather than in southern Oregon. The Knitters Book of Wool: The Ultimate Guide to Understanding, Using, and Loving this Most Fabulous Fiber English | 204 Pages | PDF | 79. The history of embroidery is a vast and complex subject and I have only had time in this article to share a few snippets of information about it. Wool does not send out forces to protect the citizens of Rogue River Valley,” the Oregon Argus wrote, “he deserves to have his wool taken from the top of his cocoanut. Wooden hammers worked by watermills beat the wool. This theory is supported by stories passed down from tribal elders as well as examples of Navajo Rugs dating back to 1700 that are a close parallel to rugs made by the Pueblo Indians. The history of the world isn’t easily condensed, but the timeline here does a good job of hitting the high notes and most significant events of roughly 4,000 years from the beginnings of Hinduism to the freeing of Nelson Mandela. This property of having crimps gives elasticity to the fibre. Polyester was the fabric of choice in a changing economy of speed, efficiency and convenience. Sail-duck was charged 9 cents a yard, with an increase of 4 percent yearly, until the duty should finally be 124 cents. Origin of the breed. The Story of Wool. Wool has outstanding resiliency while it is poor in cotton. Then, in 1810, an American diplomat arranged the importation of 20,000 purebred Merinos, and the woolen industry from Vermont to Pennsylvania to Ohio was changed forever. And despite the fact that England tried to discourage a wool industry in North America, a few History of the Australian wool industry Barry White CEO, International Fibre Centre wool producers using selective breeding to develop a type of Merino suited to Australian conditions, which produced lots of white wool that felt soft to the touch. Like human civilization, the story of wool begins in Asia Minor during the. In talking to older members of the Wool Growers, they would tell about the ram sale in Miles City during the 1930’s and 40’s. It is more subdued than shine. Wool, a protein-based fiber, has been found in Europe dating back to 2000 BCE. 6 billion. The spindle, which hangs from the fibers, twists the fibers as it rotates downward, and spins a length of yarn as it pulls away from the fiber bundle. Sheep production is man's oldest organized industry. This discovery was made by Herbert Dick and Earle Smith in 1948. Learn more about the history of jeans and denim. History of Wool Importance of Wool Wool production is one of Australia’s largest and most important forms of land use, with some 30,000 wool growing properties spread in a continuous crescent from the north of Queensland to the mid-north of Western Australia, Tasmania and the Islands of Bass Strait. Fabric creation began in ancient times when primitive peoples used flax fibers, separated into strands and woven into simple fabrics colored with dyes extracted from plants. The first pieces of clothing made in the technique similar to knitting were socks. Carefully skirt all seedy fleece wool from the britch, shoulder and necks according to a predetermined standard. Beef was a popular food on Virginia farms, and cows produced milk for both butter and cheese. It was a common medieval fabric in both dyed and natural colors, and was processed by both professional manufacturers and housewives. In 1829, one of the Reverend’s rams produced a fleece, which London wool buyers said ‘was the softest and finest fleece of wool’. • Animals have always been important throughout history for draft work, packing and transporting humans. When done by hand, it has used simple tools, such as hand-carved sticks of wood, bone, quill and ivory or metal wires and fine steel knitting needles that were commonplace in the 19th century. The following sections cover the various facets of silk history. cga. Shan Imtiaz Lecturer The University of WOOL HISTORY The first sheep were brought to the North American  Dec 12, 2016 During the last 10,000 years of human history textiles increasingly took Sheep wool has been and still remains one of the major fibres for  As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. A Timeline of World History. Search the history of over 380 billion web pages on the Internet. For this reason, such textiles proved to be vitally important 1. Wool is: Breathable – able to transport moisture in a vapor state from one place to another. Patagonia is a privately held outdoor clothing company based out of Ventura, California that generates yearly sales of approximately $540 History of Fiber Optics. Knitting history must be recognized as an interaction of forces in a perpetually changing, complex psychological, sociological, aesthetic means of self-­‐expression within an atmosphere of various climatic, natural resources, trade, technological, economic and political conditions, and as well as a society’s artistic expression. A sheep boom followed, when fine-wool sheep raising was followed on a large scale, on top of a diverse subsistence base. www. In 1910, the approximate date of this photograph, Shaniko was a major transportation hub linking central and Eastern Oregon to larger markets throughout the United States. As early as 4,000 B. You have free access to this content American Anthropologist Volume 32, Issue 1, Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2009 Smithsonian Libraries, Natural History Building, 10 th St. As civilizations de­ veloped, the people, thefibers, and the different meth­ ods invented for turning the fibers into cloth traveled to different parts of the world, with the result that You are here. P. of wool also makes woolen fabrics resistant to tearing. 5 million head, with an annual pelt production on the Order of 18 million pelts. After our 1st ‘history of weaving’ blog, which explores weaves in Asia, we continue the series by discussing the history of weaving in Africa, and present you with various textiles that can be found in this beautiful continent! African textiles are a part of the cultural heritage of its people. Wool is composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and this is the only animal fiber, which contains sulfur in addition. Deer, Baskets of wool, balls of yarn, carding combs and books on sheep and wool attracted the children’s attention. Modern breeding schemes have also resulted in an increasing number of composite or synthetic breeds which are the result of a crossing of two or more established breeds. The history of wool and woolcombing by Burnley, James, 1842-1919 PDF download. Now days, it is a very important textile fiber in the textile sector. The history of silk, cotton, linen, wool, and other fibrous substances: including observations on spinning, dyeing and weaving. PDF | On Jan 1, 2010, S. Until the Revolution, British goods poured into the American market, and most of Williamsburg's citizens, from the governor to house servants, wore clothes made of English textiles. – Gate-leg circular tables were introduced at this time as well. History. Lesotho has a long history of sheep and goat husbandry and there is a well-developed and effective value chain for the production and marketing of wool and mohair. Happy reading! References Hogg, B. The Woolmark Company is the global authority on Merino wool and owns the Woolmark logo, a quality assurance symbol applied to more than 5 billion  Oct 30, 2008 loan deficiency payments for wool and mohair producers for crop years 2008- 2012. Plant textiles, the most common being cotton, can also be made from straw, grass and bamboo. THE HISTORY OF LAODICEA We have learned how important the cultural history is of each of the seven churches of the Book of Revelation. The wool fibers have crimps or curls, which create pockets and give the wool a spongy feel and create insulation for the wearer. Sheep were one of the first animals to be herded by humans. ,1867– 3 c. From In addition, the outer skin of the wool fiber acts as a protective film, giving wool cloth improved resistance to abrasion. history of wool pdf

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